How to judge the risks of software projects?
Any large-scale project is a very complicated system. It is very important to make a sufficient risk identification in the project project demonstration and project plan selection. Therefore, a scientific and accurate identification of the project risk is provided to the project decision-makers and managers It is very necessary to provide a scientific evaluation method. Let's follow the project management software customer service to learn how to determine the risk of software projects ~
1. Risk level division
In the actual assessment of project risks, we usually divide risks into three levels: low risk, medium risk, and high risk. Their definitions and specific meanings are as follows:
Low risk is the risk that can identify and monitor its impact on project objectives. The possibility of this risk is quite low, and its cause is irrelevant. Generally, only the normal design department needs to monitor it, and no other special measures need to be taken to deal with this type of risk.
Medium risk is a risk that can be identified and will have a greater impact on the technical performance, cost or schedule of the engineering system. The likelihood of such risks occurring is quite high and requires close monitoring. This type of risk should be reviewed in the design review at each design stage, and appropriate means or actions should be taken to reduce the risk.
High risk refers to the risk that the possibility of occurrence is high, and its consequences will have a great impact on the project. This kind of risk can only be allowed in the pure research work or the project development stage or the scheme verification and preliminary design stage, but it cannot be allowed for a project entering the engineering development stage. The project management department must closely monitor each high-risk area and enforce the risk reduction plan. High risks should also be reported and reviewed regularly.
Different prevention and monitoring measures can be adopted for different levels of risk, and corresponding strategies should be adopted for projects belonging to different levels of risk. By dividing risk levels, it can provide intuitive auxiliary information for project feasibility demonstration or decision-making, so that decision makers can intuitively understand the project risk. If a project is to be implemented, it should take effective measures to deal with the risks according to the specific meanings of various types of risks, and reduce the project risk to an acceptable level.
2. Identification of risk factors
The development of software projects is accompanied by risks. To evaluate project risks, we must first identify the risk factors. Risk factors are subjective and objective conditions that increase or decrease the frequency and magnitude of loss or damage, including transformation conditions and trigger conditions. A risk factor is a potential cause of a risk event, and is divided into internal or external causes of loss or damage. If all risk factors are eliminated, no loss or damage will occur. The identification of project risk factors is the classification and refinement of the factors that may cause risks in project demonstration or development. Here, we can use expert survey methods and brainstorming methods to analyze the possible risk factors in the project construction, organize and classify them, and divide the project risks into five categories, and refine them into several factors. .
3. The specific meaning of various risks
As above, we divide the project's risk factors into five categories. From a system perspective, technology, cost, and schedule risks are internal factors of the system, while social environment and management risks are external factors. Their specific meanings are as follows:
Social environmental risk refers to the risks that may be caused to the project due to international and domestic political, economic and technological fluctuations (such as war, civil unrest, policy changes, etc.) or due to natural disasters (such as earthquakes, floods, etc.). Such risks are natural risks in a large environment, and are generally fatal and almost irreparable risks.
Technical risk refers to the risk to the project construction due to changes in technical factors related to project development. It is usually defined as the possibility that a development project fails to meet the tactical and technical index requirements within a specified period of time and under certain funding guarantee conditions, or that a certain part of the development plan has unexpected results that may have a harmful effect on the overall system performance Sex and consequences. In terms of technical risks, the failure probability of a risk event is generally measured from the three aspects of technology maturity, complexity, and relevance to other projects, and the occurrence of such risks is considered from three aspects: technical performance, cost, and schedule. Consequence of loss.
Management risk refers to the risk to the project construction due to the status of the management functions and management objects (such as management organization, leadership quality, management plan) and other possible changes of the project construction.
Schedule risk refers to the risk of delaying the completion of the project due to various uncertain factors. The risk mainly depends on technical factors, the rationality of the plan, the adequacy of resources, and the experience of project personnel.
Expense risk refers to the possibility that project costs may be overrun because of unclear project task requirements or affected by factors such as technology and schedule. The risk can be estimated from the six factors: mission requirements clarity, technical risk impact, schedule risk impact, cost budget accuracy, contract type impact, and contract quotation impact.
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